Loveland Pass, Summit County

Rocky Mountain Alpine Turf Plant Community
a photo of alpine turf plant community with alpine avens.


The Alpine Turf Plant Community can be thought of as an ecological successor of the Alpine Fellfield – Cushion Plant Community previously described in this Alpine Life Zone section. That plant community was described as having gravelly soil with particles broken down just enough to allow plants to grow, but containing virtually no organic matter. Inorganic soil is unable to retain much water, so plants living there are dwarf-sized and have long taproots which penetrate deeply in search of water.

Alpine Fellfields can remain stable for hundreds of years, but if the conditions are right, soil containing humus will gradually develop over a period of many hundreds of years. The Alpine Turf photo above, and the Alpine Fellfield photo in that web page were both taken at Summit Lake on Mt. Evans. The Summit Lake Alpine Fellfield Plant Community is located on a relatively flat ridge on the east side of the lake which is open to northerly winds. The Alpine Turf Community, however, is located on the southeast facing slope of a ridge on the west side of the lake and is protected by that ridge from the prevailing north and northwesterly winds. In addition, the ridge collects large amounts of snow in the winter that gradually melt and trickle down through the turf community during the summer growing season. One can actually hear the water running in the adjacent boulder field. That location, its aspect, as well as the increased moisture from snowmelt created conditions that favored the development of the organic soils found in the turf community.

Some Indicator Plants

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Blackroot Sedge (Carex elynoides)

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An indicator plant of the Alpine Turf Plant Community, the Blackroot Sedge (Carex elynoides) is in the Sedge Family (Cyperaceae). It is a native sedge and common in alpine tundra and meadows from the subalpine to the alpine (rarely in the montane). Blooms from June through August on the eastern and western slopes. Photo by Loraine Yeatts.

Photo by Loraine Yeatts


The major difference between the fellfield and turf communities is that the turf community is dominated by rhizomatous, sod-forming sedges and perennial grasses.

Some forbes, such as Alpine Clover (Trifolium dasyphyllum), Alpine Avens (Geum rossii var. turbinatum), and Moss Campion (Silene acaulis), may be found in both plant communities, but for the most part the plants in the turf communities must be more competitive to survive the dense grasses and sedges.

The dominant sedges are Blackroot Sedge (Carex elynoides), Bellardi Bog Sedge (Carex myosuroides), Curley Sedge (Carex rupestris), Northern Single Spike Sedge (Carex scirpoidea), and Dry Sedge (Carex siccada).

Dominant grasses are Alpine Fescue (Festuca brachyphylla), Idaho Fescue (Festuca idahoensis), Arctic Bluegrass (Poa arctica), Purple Reedgrass (Calamagrostis purpurascens), and Tufted Hairgrass (Deschampsia cespitosa).

The most common forbes are Alpine Avens (Geum rossii var. turbinatum), Creeping Sibbaldia (Sibbaldia procumbens), Moss Campion (Silene acaulis), Alpine Clover (Trifolium dasyphyllum), Parry’s Clover (Trifolium parryi), Hooker’s Mountatin Avens (Dryas hookeriana), Rocky Mountain Spikemoss (Selaginella densa), and Cushion Phlox (Phlox pulvinata).

There are also several species of Goldenrods (Solidago) and Saxifrages (Saxifraga).

Carex elynoides – Carex rupestris – Kobresia myosuroides Rocky Mountain Alpine Turf Alliance
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